Confederate Battle Flag Comes In Waves History Unfurling

Barack Obama handed the Confederate battle flag to Clementa Pinkney at her funeral last week. Many believe it is the final, if not delayed, sentence in public life. He said he believes it belongs in a museum. The battle flag’s history is more complicated and contested that Obama’s resolve. Or the substantially united voices of the media may suggest. While the president’s condemnation mirrors public moods that are rapidly changing, attitudes towards the flag have deeper roots.

The Battle Flag First Life

Obama was conscious of his connection to a seven-decade-old history of African American public agitation against Confederate flag. The African-American perception of the flag in 1954 as a symbol of desegregation. Became a self-fulfilling prophecy after Brown v Board of Education. The popularity of the battle flag in 1950s Confederate America may have also contributed. To the decision to use it as a rallying point. It was first used in a variety of contexts, from sporting fans to electoral campaigns.

It Is Not As Simple As You Might Think

Although it is commonly call the Confederate Flag but it was never an official Confederate flag. The Confederate regime changed its flag design three more times in four years. Designs that are not well-known to the public today are the Confederate Flag.

The flag is not the best format for military use. The regulations require that the flag be square in different sizes to suit different branches of military service. It was the St Andrews cross in blue and red.

After the war, rectangular flags became more common. They were use in the Confederate navy and armies west the Mississippi, but not in their original form. Confederate motif flag manufacturers in industrial settings decided to make the flags standardised with all their other products, creating a rare relic that was not part of wartime experience.

The battle flag has not caused the same extreme language to use by actual Confederate flags even though they are officially associated with a regime that enshrined Chattel slavery. They don’t appear to cause what Washington and Lee University law students called psychological chains in their 2014 petition to remove battle flags from Robert E Lee’s tomb.

The Rise Of Battle Flag

The battleflag was almost invisible until the 1940s. Veterans and organizations such as the United Daughters of the Confederacy kept it from being used for memorial ceremonies and honoring fallen soldiers.

It is closely connected to the issues of mourning family members and former comrades. However, it rarely leaked out into explicitly racist/racial contexts. There are many images that show the Ku Klux Klan using stars and stripes in the interwar heydays to invoke imagery of totalitarian regimes, including the iconic images of a massed protest in Washington DC in 1925.

In the post-second-world-war boomtime the flag became a popular cultural fad. In an age when travel by air and car was more affordable than ever before, the flag became a popular cultural fad. New forms of consumption and desire for the flag were a result. This was in direct contrast to the American Civil War (1861-1865).

It was in this period that the many Confederate battleflag-themed clothing, including swimwear and pants, started to appear. These items are still available for purchase.

The second world war saw an increase in unofficial, spontaneous awareness of the battle flag by the US military. This continued into the Korean War. The flag was associated with the far north and the south of the country, as well as with a certain good-humoured and rough resilience that Australians began to call larrikinesque during the same period.

After Vietnam, The Battle Flag

Individual military personnel continued to deploy the battleflag in Vietnam War, even though African-American soldiers frequently protested against Confederate symbols or rituals. Officials from the army tried to limit these unofficial displays of battleflag because they created tensions and divisions within racially-mixed facilities.

As civilian enthusiasm for the battleflag shifted from military to civilian life, the association of the battleflag and working-class masculinity, sports enthusiasts, car racing and elaborately customised vehicles, professional truck drivers, country and western music, and car racing began in the 1950s/60s.

Confederate heritage groups expressed concern about insults to flags due to working-class appropriations. These ideas were affirmed by the Dukes of Hazzard television series, which was dedicated to the antics and adventures of the Duke family of Georgia.

The Confederate Flag in Europe

For many decades, transcultural use of the battle has been limit to Europe and England. They have not shown any engagement with American racial politics.

Some academics criticize European football hooligans, anti-immigrant protesters and others for using the battleflag as a way to make racist comments. However, European sporting fans use the battleflag to highlight intranational rivalries. This usage is quite different from that found in the United States.

The flag, for example, speaks to the awareness of north/south divides that have been present in both Irish and Italian history. The battle flag was created by Sicily to romanticize victimisation by the dominant and discriminatory North and to suggest resistance at a vernacular scale.

On the other side, I saw a French-African shopkeeper selling and modeling striking confederate flag-themed pants in Paris’ Gare de L’Est district, January 2014. This is directly in line with North American definitions for the as an Afrophobic symbol.

Civil War Re Enacting

The continued interest in Civil War re enacting is reflect in the appearance of the battle in Europe. It also reflects European interest in wild west re enacting, which includes a racial imitation of Native Americans by Caucasians. This would not be acceptable in the United States.

Scandinavia adopted the Confederate flag in Raggare, a subculture that is based on retro. North-American cultural imagery from the 1950s and the restoration of classic cars. The battle flag is positive and retains its image in this context, similar to rockabilly.

After the Charleston shootings, few articles in the press have supported the battle flag. They also suggested that it could have multiple meanings other than to festering. Intolerance or that the battle flag could evoke the rich presence the American South in popular cultural imagination. These articles taken from British dailies, which again suggest that. The battle flag may have different meanings beyond the United States.

Antarctica Diaries Week Two Deploy A Telescope

Professor Michael Ashley is currently in Antarctica, to deploy a telescope at Ridge A, approximately 850km from South Pole. This is the second instalment of Professor Ashley’s Antarctica Diaries. You can read the previous instalments by following the links at bottom of the article.

Final Inspections Before McMurdo

Today is our last chance for us to meet various critical support personnel in McMurdo Station prior to heading to the South Pole. We meet with the fixed-wing coordinator at 9am to discuss the schedule of the Twin Otter flights from Ridge A to the South Pole, what cargo we can transport, and other details. Our flights will schedule for the week commencing January 16, 2012. We find that 800 litres Jet-A1 fuel, which we require, has been deliver to a location called AGAP-South. It is located approximately 200km from Ridge A.

We meet at 10:15 with MacOps the McMurdo communication centre to discuss our communication needs (Iridium Satellite phones, high frequency radio (HF)) and protocols for coms. Every morning, Ridge A residents must check in with MacOps by Iridium at 8am. They will attempt to contact us if we fail to check in by 8am. If they are unsuccessful within an hour, a full-scale emergency response will be initiate.

Antarctica Program

While we don’t wish to cause that, it is comforting to know that the US Antarctic Program has a lot of resources behind our project. There are approximately 200 people currently living in remote locations across the continent. They also have about 30 camps. Mac Ops keeps photos of each team member on a noticeboard, so that they can identify the person calling in. The highest and remotest camp will be our field camp.

We meet again with Loomy, the mountaineer who is accompanying us on Ridge A, just before lunch to finalize our survival gear and clothing inventory. We did a 4.6km loop to Grey Dome on the opposite side to McMurdo to Observation Hill. The views were spectacular, as shown in the photo below.

As I crossed one ridge, I saw a familiar green-and gold-coloured hut. This was the AASTO, the Automated Astrophysical Site Test Observatory. It was a project that UNSW’s team started in 1997. The AASTO collect data at the South Pole for a while and was originally intend to be transport to Dome A via LC-130.

Bumped By a Day

We discovered that we had been delayed from today’s flight towards the Pole. Tomorrow will be our next flight. The three-letter airport code that is used for the South Pole skiway, NPX, is quite interesting. The fact that the South Pole Station was first established by the US Navy is why the N stands in for Navy. I have been reading Deep Freeze by Dian O. Belanger. It describes how the US established bases in Antarctica in the 1950s to support the International Geophysical Year (1957/58).

Makes you appreciate all the pioneers work. It took 14 hours to fly from Christchurch to McMurdo, as opposed to the current five hours. This was the maximum distance at that time. To give crew members some hope of survival in the event of an aircraft having to abandon ship, four ships were placed at 400km intervals.

Campbell and Luke, younger members of my research group, have a special connection to Scott Base nearby. They have visited it several times during our McMurdo stay. Since 1957, there has been a rugby match between these two stations. I’m told that the Americans have never won one.

The Mount Terror Rugby Club is the American name for the club, but it can’t match the blood-curdling haka of New Zealand’s Maori players. Later, when I look at the Pegasus runway from the rugby field, I find that there is only one set of goal posts. This could be a reason for the American failure?

Gorgeous Blue-Sky Day

Today is a gorgeous blue-sky day without clouds or wind. I took the opportunity to hike up Observation Hill again and capture the stunning panorama. Now that Mount Erebus has been completely clear of clouds, it’s stunning. At the top of Ob Hill, I feel the wind pick up, and I quickly retreat down the steep slopes to warmth.

We will be doing bag drag tomorrow at 6:30pm. Bag drag is when you must collect all of your luggage and bring it to MCC (the Movement Control Centre). The flight attendant will weigh your checked baggage and then palletize it. You can keep one small bag for carry-on until you board the plane. MCC is located on top of a hill so Bag drag is an appropriate title. The bags can be awkward and heavy and you will need to bring your ECW (Extreme Cold Weather Gear) and heavy boots to check in.

Recreational Travel Antarctica

We will be attending a 30-minute safety talk on recreational travel from McMurdo at 7pm. This allows us to visit some of the slightly-further-afield sites, such as a 10km loop. It is important to follow the trail to Castle Rock as it is mark with flags. A few years ago, hikers tried to follow a trail but ended up walking straight along a thin snow layer that covered a crevasse. It can appear like a trail because the snow tends sink into the crevasse. The snow bridge gave way after a few kilometres and one hiker fell into the crevasse. They were rescue by McMurdo’s rescue team.

Three hikers made a decision to shorten their trip to Scott Base, at the end the Castle Rock loop in 1986. Two fell into a crevasse 20 meters deep, but the third managed to stay on top and was able get help. They had already lost their companions when they reached the surface.

Premiers The Whip Hand Australia Starts To Reopen

Scott Morrison warn of a potential bumpy road as COVID restrictions are lift in order to reopen economy. He said the process must continue even in the face expected new outbreaks. This environment is complex and uncertain. But we cannot allow our fear that we will go backwards to stop us from moving forwards, he stated, unveiling a plan approved by the national cabinet. However, it would be implement at different rates across different states and territories.

Morrison stated that he was oppose to restrictions being impose once unwinding has begun. In July, the goal is to have a Covid safe economy. Treasury estimates that 851,000 jobs will be restore over the next few months. The roadmap has three steps that establish baselines for activities to be restart. The first stage will allow up to five guests to your house. Outside gatherings up to 10 are allow.

Reopening small restaurants or cafes is possible, but only with a maximum of 10 customers. Playgrounds, libraries and community centres can be open, outdoor boot camps may resume and auctions are permit. Recreational travel will permit to both local and regional locations. Morrison stated that the advice on the work front is to work from home if you and your employer like it, which Morrison described in a difference in emphasis as opposed with previous encouragements for people to work remotely.

Allows Outside Gatherings Reopen

Funerals can hold up to 30 people outdoors, 20 indoors, or 10 for weddings. Step two allows outside gatherings of up to 20 people and indoor gatherings of up to 20 persons in newly opened indoor gyms, beauty salons and theatres as well as amusement parks, galleries, museums and cinemas. Restaurants and cafes can accommodate up to 20 people simultaneously. In certain circumstances, states and territories may allow greater numbers.

Depending on the jurisdiction, interstate recreational travel might be possible. The third stage allows for gatherings of up to 100 people and people return to their jobs. Cafes, restaurants, and food courts will be able cater to up to 100 persons. Saunas and bathhouses will also be allow. Interstate travel is allow. At this stage, consideration will given opening bars. The remaining bars and brothels will remain closed.

This stage of travel would include travel arrangements for international students, Pacific Island travel, and between Australia and New Zealand. Morrison stated that the speed at which restrictions are lifted is up to the states or territories. They will be responsible for setting their own schedules and communicating it to residents and citizens in their states and territories. He said that chief ministers and premiers also asked him to emphasize the fact that there shouldn’t be any expectation of Step One starting on Day 1.

Preparation To Move Forward

He said that it would take some preparation to move forward with these steps. Three criteria would determine movement from one step to another. Medical evidence suggests further easing won’t be an undue threat; widespread testing was identifying communities as carriers and public health actions were able trace and trap local outbreaks. Morrison stated, Testing and tracing, trapping, as they were speaking in the Northern Territory recently.

The progress of the national cabinet will be reviewed every three weeks. Morrison answered without hesitation when asked if states, territories, and Australians should keep their cool during new outbreaks. He also stated that if there were a widespread epidemic, the government would follow the health advice. Morrison stated that Australia’s health system, testing and tracing systems put it in a strong position.

This plan to lift restrictions says We walk before we run. We are aware that we must be cautious to protect our gains. However, if we want to regain the ground we lost, we must not be too timid. There will be dangers. There will be problems. He said that there would be many challenges.

Specific Reopen Circumstances

Not everything will go according to plan. There will be inconsistencies. States can and should move at their own pace and adapt the plan to their specific circumstances. Undoubtedly, there will be human error. Nobody is perfect. Everybody is trying their best. The Victorian premier Daniel Andrews has been the most conservative among the premiers and he said that he wouldn’t make any announcements until next week.

He suggested that he might open schools, which in Victoria offer distance learning to all students. The federal government has been angered by Victoria’s strict stance on schools. Morrison has advocated for safe school openings, which is the national health advice. The NSW government will not act until next week. Premier Gladys Berejiklian noted that the state had already taken steps to lift restrictions.

The following is the state breakdown of the Treasury Forecast for Jobs Restored in the Next Months: NSW 280,000; Victoria 216,000; Queensland 174,000; South Australia 55,000; Western Australia 85,000; Tasmania 18,000; Northern Territory 9000, ACT 14 qq online.